Here is a assortment of some of my favorite contemporary photographers working in color, and web links to their work.
ASSIGNMENT: Visit all the photographer’s websites. Pick three photos from three different websites that interest or excite you. Create a google doc. Write a short paragraph (minimum 5, maximum 7) sentences describing what you see in the photo. For each, be sure to comment on what you see (what’s happening in the photo? Is it really happening, staged or fantasy? What’s the subject or idea? Where are we? Why is it important?), AND how composition and color are used by the photographer to enhance the image. Add the image to your description, so I can see what you are talking about.
Add a fourth photographer–one you find yourself. Your teacher can point you in the right direction if you like, but I recommend finding an area of interest and doing a web search to find photography you are interested in. Copy or screenshot an image for your google doc, and write about it. Be sure to write the name of the photographer and include a link to their website.
Every student in Digital Photography class will post work to personalized photo blog they make themselves. The blogs are free and easy to create through WordPress.com. Follow these steps:
Sign into http://www.wordpress.com (create a free account). You must remember which email you use and your password–write it down somewhere!
Create a free blog. Title your blog (something other than your name), that has to do with photography (think hard about this–once you choose it, you will be using it for the rest of the semester and beyond!)
Customize your site (we will demonstrate / work through this in class).
Give your site a “Site Title”
Edit your “Primary Menu” to add or subtract menus. You need to add a “About the Photographer”
Add one of your photos as a “Header Image” (if applicable to your site template)
…and so on! Note that you may alter your site after adding posts / content–that shouldn’t change or erase your content, but it may move things around. You can even apply a NEW template after you’ve started your blog, if you decide later that the template isn’t working for you.
Digital Photography 101: The basics of color theory
How to use color theory to improve your photography, part 1
Can you imagine a world without color? It’s such an intrinsic part of our lives that sometimes we don’t even notice it. We only stop to think about color when we encounter a particularly jarring or particularly pleasing combination. But for a good photographer, color is a integral part of the constant image processing we do in our heads. We don’t just see a composition in terms of lines and shapes; we see the colors in it and the way they work in harmony or opposition.
It’s well known that color can affect mood and, like particular shapes and lines, can be used to evoke feelings of calmness and serenity or of tension and passion. Color can make or break a photograph, so it’s a good idea to have some clue what it’s all about. In part 1 of this two-part series, we’ll explain the basics of color theory. In part 2, we’ll go into more detail about how it applies to photography.
First, a bit of technical explanation. Color, as we know it in regards to photography, is usually discussed in terms of hue, saturation, and brightness.
Hue is the color part of color. When we say a color is blue, purple, or yellow, we’re generally talking about hue. Technically, hue is “the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow (the unique hues).” Makes perfect sense, right? If you really want to get into the nitty-gritty technical definition, check out Wikipedia’s entry for hue — but for our purposes, it’s enough to say that hue is the actual color of the color.
Hue can be adjusted in image editing software such as Photoshop or Gimp. In the images on the left, the top left image is the original photo. In the other three quadrants, we’ve shifted the hue by varying degrees, moving it more toward green, red, or blue. This can be particularly useful both to adjust for interior lighting or simply for artistic purposes.
You’re probably familiar from childhood art classes with the traditional primary colors of red, yellow, and blue — those reflected light colors are known as painters’ primaries. If you’ve worked with software like Photoshop or played around with your monitor or TV color settings, you might have noticed a different set of primary colors: red, green, and blue, abbreviated RGB. Those are the transmitted light primaries, and they create the colors you see in digital form in your camera or monitor. Printers work with yet another set of primary colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black, abbreviated CMYK.
Brightness (sometimes called lightness, value, or tone) refers to how light or dark a hue is. Again, the technical definition gets complex, but the basic concept is simply how much white or black appears in the color. In photography, this is easily adjusted by the exposure; an overexposed image is very light, while an underexposed image is very dark.
Saturation (also called chroma) is the degree to which a color is colorful, as opposed to grayscale. According to Wikipedia, “the saturation of a color is determined by a combination of light intensity and how much it is distributed across the spectrum of different wavelengths. The purest (most saturated) color is achieved by using just one wavelength at a high intensity, such as in laser light. If the intensity drops, then as a result the saturation drops.” Just how blue is that blue? A more saturated color looks more pure, while a less saturated color looks more dirty or diluted. Most colors found in nature are relatively unsaturated — natural, pure color is fairly rare. Spinning through the color wheel
You may have seen a color wheel before — in it, you can see each of the primary colors, separated by wedges (or triangles, as in this example) of the various hues that result from mixing the primary colors to varying degrees. The color directly opposite each primary color on the wheel is called its complementary color — those colors are green, violet, and orange.
Since colors and their complements are opposites, combining them creates a very strong contrast in an image and can create either harmony or tension, depending on the composition of the image. Combining colors that lie next to each other on the color wheel is called analogous harmony. For example, blue-green, blue, and blue-violet are analogous colors.
Intensity and harmony
One might think that we would logically see colors of the same saturation as having the same intensity, but that’s not the case. On the color wheel, we see yellow as being much more intense than violet, and orange as much more intense than blue. To build a harmoniously colored composition, you might want to include more blue than orange, because the orange is more intense.
Warmer colors are more intense than cooler colors, and they tend to appear to advance toward us, while cooler colors appear to recede. It has been theorized that we perceive colors in this way because in nature, most things that are shades of blue or green are harmless, whereas bright yellows, oranges, and reds frequently indicate poison or other danger. This is why warning signs are commonly colored yellow, orange, or red, because we naturally pay attention to those colors.
Part 2: How to use color theory to saturate your photographs
A few weeks ago, we gave you a basic overview of color theory. This week, we’re going to go more in-depth and explore how you can use color theory to enhance your photography.
The most obvious effect that color has on photography is creating and enhancing mood. In the pair of photos below, the image on the left is the original photo, taken on a bright, overcast day; the image on the right has been altered in Photoshop to more of a warm sepia tone. The coloring of the photo below evokes feelings of nostalgia, and one might even think the scene took place many years ago.
In contrast, blue tones tend to give a somber, cool, somewhat sad feeling. These responses are purely psychological, of course, and everyone reacts to color in slightly different ways. But generally speaking, warm colors such as yellow, gold, and greens that fall toward the yellow end of the spectrum make photos seem inviting, friendly, and happy. Cooler colors like blue and purple tend to give a more aloof, chilly feel.
Create colorful movement
You’ve probably heard it said that some colors “pop.” This effect is referred to as advancing and receding, and it’s most easily seen in bright blues and reds. Cool colors like blue tend to be seen as receding, whereas warm colors like red look like they’re advancing toward the viewer. You can use this theory to your advantage by putting elements with advancing colors like red in the foreground of your photos. This will add to the feeling of depth in your image.
Some colors are also associated very strongly with certain concepts. Red, for example, is frequently used as a warning, telling us to stop or be careful. Our eyes are naturally drawn to red in photographs, and we pay more attention to red objects than those of other colors.
Complementary colors are those located on opposite sides of the color wheel. These colors work well together in images meant to feel lively and energetic, because the two colors compete with one another. The photo of a yellow egg yolk on a purple plate is a great example of complementary colors.
Work together in harmony
Harmonious colors are those that are adjacent on the color wheel, such as red, orange, and yellow, or green, blue, and violet. Harmonious colors, as the name implies, work very well together and bring a peaceful feeling to an image.
Keep it simple
Monochrome commonly refers to what we also call black-and-white images, though technically the correct term is grayscale. However, monochrome can also be used to refer to images that use mainly either a single color or a small range of colors on the color wheel. The most obvious situation where this occurs naturally is in a summertime forest, where the leaves, moss, and warm summer light make a world of almost entirely shades of green.
To keep a monochrome photograph from looking dull or flat, try to find different saturations and shades of your chosen color, to add a sense of depth and movement.
Spot colors keep it interesting
One of the fun things that’s pretty easy to do with image editing programs like Photoshop to create an image that uses spot color. Usually this is done by cloning a part of your image and keeping it the original color while desaturating the rest of the image until it’s grayscale. You can use this technique to draw the viewer’s attention to a bright yellow flower, a model’s ruby-red lips, or a colorful balloon.
The inverse of this technique is also possible, where all but one part of a photograph is in color. When the grayscale part of the image is a person, this can lend a ghostly, surreal quality to the scene.
Whether you’re a fan of serene black-and-white photography or deeply saturated hues, a basic understanding of color theory will help you visualize color combinations that work and compose even more striking photographs.
[Writing Credit: Katherine Gray; posted on http://www.steves-digicams.com.]
What defines you as a person? Is it: Culture? Personality? History? Gender? Your interests or activities?
How can the visual medium of photography be used to represent these aspects of identity?
What do you wish to share about yourself? What do you wish to keep private? How much can a photographic portrait show about a person?
Directions for Shooting this Assignment:
With a partner assigned by the teacher, shoot one portrait in the studio. You will photograph them, and they will photograph you. For this image, think about one specific theme in your life (rather than every aspect of your life–that might be impossible to capture in one image!) You need to bring one prop or clothing item that shows a theme in your life. The quality of the light (direction, intensity, hardness or softness, color) can also help express your personality.
With a partner of your choosing, or on your own, shoot a photograph on location, using natural light. You photograph them, they photograph you. Choose a location that says something about you. Other elements you include in the image can give us a visual clue: time of day, props, and of course your expression, gesture or body language. How you shoot can be used to add meaning or emotion: focus, depth of field, freezing or blurring motion, use of light, lens choice and framing. Finally, how you edit and print the image will affect our reading of it (saturation, contrast, color vs. black and white, and so on). You may use your camera’s timer and a tripod to shoot this image by yourself if you choose.
The third photograph should say something about you without you in it. This can be a real challenge! Is it a place? A thing? Something abstract that communicates a mood? Something special to you and your identity? Again, think about how the elements and design of your images communicate both information and emotion.
Remember: the images can be serious or humorous. Either way, they should reflect something essential and important about who you are as a person.
Directions for your Blog Post (including the Writing):
Select one or two images from 1,2 and 3 (above) — so one or two portraits taken in the studio, one or two on location, and one that says something about you without you in it.
Do not make a slideshow gallery for this blog post. Instead, you need to post the images in a large size and add your writing about the images under each image (or each pair of images)
Write about your identity, and how you expressed it through these images. One paragraph per image (or pair of images). Look back at the essential questions, at the top of this assignment. What are you showing about yourself in this image? Why did you make the decisions you did as a photographer for these images? What was the experience of making these images like for you? What did you learn about photography and yourself through this project?
Download the lecture / slideshow on Studio Lighting with examples here:
Post their best images, with writing, from our photo expedition from Porter to Harvard Squares in Cambridge. This is what needs to be in your post:
Make sure you finish editing your images (which includes correcting and enhancing) before publishing them
Export your collection as JPEGS. Choose 2500 pixels as your long image edge. Choose maximum quality. You will upload these images (rather than your originals). These images will show all of your edits.
Publish your collection — no fewer than 8 images, no more than 20.
You may publish as a slideshow, mosaic, or other arrangement…OR, you may weave the images into your writing (see bel0w), like an article.
Write three short paragraphs.
In paragraph one, describe your thinking before the trip. What you were looking for? What were you challenging yourself to capture?
In paragraph two, tell some specific stories from about your photography from the shoot. What was as you expected? What surprised you? Who or what did you see that drew your eye, and how did you photograph it?
In paragraph three, reflect on the field trip. What did you learn about photography?In general, what interests you about cities, design, architecture, people and culture? Do you enjoy being in the city? Did the trip change you as a photographer? How will this experience affect you in the future?
We are planning a field trip for a full day, on Thursday, October 13th, to Cambridge to shoot photographs. This trip will give the students an opportunity to document urban subjects, like people and architecture. This will also help photography students understand the many great photographers they have studied this year, who spent their careers exploring big cities with cameras in their hands. We hope to get great new material to print by the end of the semester.
We will get ourselves to Cambridge by train and walk through a variety of interesting locations, capturing images as we go. We will have lunch in Harvard Square and take the train home, returning by the end of the school day.
We will be taking the Commuter Rail from Concord to Porter Square. We will walk to the Lunder Art Museum at Lesley University School of Art and Design to see a retrospective of the work of photographer Irving Penn. We will then walk to Harvard Square, taking photos as we go. We will have lunch in Harvard Square. We will enter the “T” at Harvard Square, take the Red Line back to Porter Square, and the Commuter Rail back to Concord.
Chaperones and Guidelines
Students will be accompanied by a chaperone in groups of five or six, but will be encouraged to spread out a bit to explore their environment and to take photos (photo taking in a herd doesn’t work well!). Students should bring a cell phone to stay in contact with their chaperone and their teacher.